# The Progressive and Regressive Taxes

##### The Difference Between Marginal and Average Tax Rates.

The United States’ income system is progressive. Ron trautman said that it means that households with higher incomes will pay more tax. Tax reform recently passed has resulted in a change to the tax brackets of married couples and individuals.

The new system places individuals who earn \$100,000, or more, in the 24% marginal bracket. It means that \$24 of federal income tax is paid for each \$100 gained for every dollar earned beyond \$100,000. The person still produces 10% for the first \$98,875 rated. It is 12%, 22%, and so on. The average tax that this person will pay is less than 24%

The marginal tax rate for most taxpayers is lower under the new tax system. There is also a higher standard deduction (\$12,400 if you are single and \$24,800 if you are joint). For individuals who itemize, however, there are fewer deductions. You can only deduct \$10,000 from state or local taxes. It includes income taxes and taxes on real estate and property taxes. Mortgage interest deductions are restricted to interest on mortgage debts up to \$750,000.

Additionally, interest on home equity loans is not deductible, even if they were taken out after December 31, 2017. The marginal tax rate for long-term capital gain (earnings from selling stocks and bonds or other financial assets) remains at 0% to 20%. The additional 3.8% net tax on investment is charged to high-income taxpayers. Taxes on capital gains of less than one year are added to regular individual income tax rates.

##### Calculations for Tax

A person earning \$100,000, for instance, is considered to be in the 24% marginal tax bracket. However, the person still pays 10% for the first \$9.525 earned and 12% for the amount in each frame.

The following three individuals filed jointly to show the total tax paid and the difference between the marginal and average tax rates.

###### Individual 1

This person has \$6,000. Her marginal tax rate in this instance is 10%. Total tax paid equals \$6,000 x 10%, or \$600. The average tax is simply the total tax paid divided by total income. It equals \$600 divided by \$6,000 or 10 per cent. These marginal tax rates and the average are identical for this person.

###### Individual 2

This person has a taxable net income of \$25,000. He pays a marginal tax rate of 12%. The first \$9,875 is his tax. However, he only pays 10%. Then, he spends 12% for the remaining \$15,000. The total tax equals

(.10x \$9,875) + (+.12×15,125) = 987.50 + \$1.815 = \$2.802.50. The average tax rate for him is \$2,802.50 divided into \$25,000, which equals.1121 (or 11.21%). The average tax rate of 11.21 percent is lower than the marginal tax rate of 12.

###### Individual 3

Let’s suppose that this person has a \$100,000 taxable income. Her marginal tax rate in 2018 is 24%. She pays 10% on the first \$9.875. She then pays 10% on the \$9,875 in excess, 22% on the \$45,400 in the next bracket, and 24% on the \$14,475. Thus, this person’s total taxes equals:

For every person who falls within the 12% or more excellent marginal tax bracket, the marginal rate is generally higher than the average tax rate (in progressive tax systems).

###### Deductions in Tax

Current federal, state or local income tax systems permit households to deduct a range of expenses from their gross earnings. Gross income minus tax deductions equal taxable income. Ron william trautman said for example, the mortgage interest that a person pays each month on their house (up to \$750,000) is deductible. Other assumptions include up to \$10,000, state and municipal taxes, real-estate taxes, and loan points: specific retirement contributions, capital losses, certain retirement payments, dependent care expenses, and self-employment expenses. For example, if the person has \$100,000 in income and \$40,000 in deductible expenses, their adjusted gross income (or AGI) will be \$60,000. The person will have to pay tax only \$60,000 instead of \$100,000 because of deductions.

###### Tax Systems

One example of a progressive tax is the Federal individual Income Tax System, as described above. However, taxes may also be proportional or regressive. They will explain these systems below.

###### Progressive tax

In a progressive tax system, those who earn more income pay a higher marginal tax rate than those with lower income. The federal marginal tax rates are shown in the table at the top of the page. recablog They range progressive tax from 10% up to 37%. An example of this is a \$20,000 taxable income person who falls into the 12% tax bracket. It means that any additional dollar earned by the person, up to the next higher bracket, is subjected to a federal tax of 12%.

As you can see in progressive tax, it does. Not that means must pay 12% of total income in taxes. The 10% charge for the first \$98,875 is only 10%. The remaining \$20,000 is subjected to 12%.

###### Proportional tax

In a proportional taxation system, both high- and lower-income earners are subject to the same tax rate. In the United States, most individual income tax systems in each state or locality are proportional. For example, a \$10,000 earner pays 5%.stateIncome taxes include 5% for a person earning \$500,000, as well as income taxes. Some economists advocate a proportional, rather than absolute, income tax. Flat Our tax federal Income tax system Flat tax proposals rarely allow for deductions. The exception is an exemption for those with lower incomes to pay tax. It’s very straightforward.

All Americans pay the same amount of Social Security tax up to a specific threshold (\$137,000.2020). Social security tax is proportional until this threshold. The point is the end of proportionality. After that, the Social Security tax becomes regressive. A person earning more than \$137,000.00 per annum pays 0% Social Security taxes. Social security tax equals 6.2% of your income. Medicare tax applies to all income. It is 1.45%, and your employer matches it (so the government gets 2.9%).

###### 3. Regressive tax

Low-income earners pay more tax in a regressive system than earners with higher incomes. A \$10,000 earner pays 20%, while a \$100,000 earner pays 10%. The majority of state sales taxes systems are regressive. The majority of lower-income households spend all their income on consumer products. If all products are subjected to a 5% sales tax, the household will pay 5% of their income for sales tax. The majority of households with higher incomes spend less on consumer goods. As a percentage of their income, they spend less than 5% on consumer products. Some states exempt the sales tax to avoid its regressive nature essential consumptive products like clothing and food.

###### Alternative Minimum Tax

If a person makes many deductions and the total tax amount falls below a specific level, they could be subject to the alternative minimum tax. In the United States, they established an alternative minimum tax to ensure that everyone pays a certain amount of tax.

###### Other common taxes

Other than the taxes discussed in the examples, there are many taxes. They discussed the FICA tax (Social Security, Medicare) earlier. Corporations pay income tax at a maximum rate of 21%). Most local governments collect both income taxes and property taxes. Most states collect income and sales taxes. Ronald Trautman said that there are many other federal taxes that it can collect, such as capital gains taxes, estate taxes, and excise tax. A federal excise tax is similar to sales taxes but generally levies on tobacco, gasoline, cigarettes, spray cans, and other products. A capital gains tax is an income tax on assets that have increased in value. For example, if someone buys \$10,000 stock on January 1 and then sells that inventory for \$14,000 2 years later, the \$4,000 of income gained is subject to capital gains tax. When someone dies or leaves a substantial estate, estate taxes are due. If the estate has a value exceeding a certain amount, the estate tax is payable by the heirs.